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Mauro betting palmeiras 101 anoscope bet off on the pain

Mauro betting palmeiras 101 anoscope

Virtual world interactions are bringing about new psychological illnesses ranging from netaddiction to technostress, as well as online personality disorders and conflicts in multiple identities that exist in the virtual world. Presently, there are no standard therapy models for the virtual environment.

There are very few therapeutic environments, or tools especially made for virtual therapeutic environments. The goal of our research is to provide the therapy model and middleware tools for psychologists to use in virtual therapeutic environments. We propose the Cyber Therapy Model, and Projective Agents , a tool used in the therapeutic environment.

To evaluate the effectiveness of the tool, we created a prototype system, called the Virtual Group Counseling System, which is a therapeutic environment that allows the user to participate in group counseling through the eyes of their Projective Agent.

Projective Agents inherit the user's personality traits. During the virtual group counseling, the user's Projective Agent interacts and collaborates to recover and increase their psychological growth. The prototype system provides a simulation environment where psychologists can adjust the parameters and customize their own simulation environment. The model and tool is a first attempt toward simulating online personalities that may exist only online, and provide data for observation.

This review focuses on the discussion of several types of inorganic nanoparticle-based cancer therapeutic agents , including gold nanoparticles, magnetic nanoparticles, upconversion nanoparticles and mesoporous silica nanoparticles. Several cancer therapy techniques are briefly introduced at the beginning. Emphasis is placed on how these inorganic nanoparticles can provide enhanced therapeutic efficacy in cancer treatment through site-specific accumulation, targeted drug delivery and stimulated drug release, with elaborations on several examples to highlight the respective strategies adopted.

Finally, a brief summary and future challenges are included. ANSI Std. Agents Kedar Prasad, Ph. Hypothesis of HD study: For the first phase of the study, our hypothesis is that oral supplementation with a mixture of dietary and endogenous.

Therapeutic interventions in sepsis: current and anticipated pharmacological agents. Sepsis is a clinical syndrome characterized by a multisystem response to a pathogenic assault due to underlying infection that involves a combination of interconnected biochemical, cellular and organ—organ interactive networks. After the withdrawal of recombinant human-activated protein C rAPC , researchers and physicians have continued to search for new therapeutic approaches and targets against sepsis, effective in both hypo- and hyperinflammatory states.

Currently, statins are being evaluated as a viable option in clinical trials. Many agents that have shown favourable results in experimental sepsis are not clinically effective or have not been clinically evaluated.

Apart from developing new therapeutic molecules, there is great scope for for developing a variety of drug delivery strategies, such as nanoparticulate carriers and phospholipid-based systems. These nanoparticulate carriers neutralize intracorporeal LPS as well as deliver therapeutic agents to targeted tissues and subcellular locations. Here, we review and critically discuss the present status and new experimental and clinical approaches for therapeutic intervention in sepsis.

Cyclodextrins as new formulation entities and therapeutic agents. This review is focused on recent advances in the application of cyclodextrins to new drug formulations, with emphasis on the field of anesthesia. Cyclodextrins are well-known excipients in the pharmaceutical industry.

Their recent application to the anesthetic induction agent propofol as a means of creating a non-lipid formulation may lead to their introduction into anesthesia pharmacology. The development of a novel cyclodextrin as specific reversal agent for the neuromuscular blocker rocuronium that acts as an in-vivo scavenging system to bind free rocuronium in the circulation will also increase the likelihood that cyclodextrins will have a greater clinical presence in anesthesiology in the future.

Cyclodextrin-containing polymers are also finding a role in the delivery of nucleic acids and protein therapeutic agents. Recent developments in cyclodextrins as excipients for anesthetics may soon culminate in their introduction into anesthesiology, although more research is necessary to better define their potential. Noting that therapeutic nursery programs TNPs offer one alternative to mainstream daycare or preschool settings for young children experiencing severe emotional and behavioral difficulties, this study gathered information about TNPs and their services.

Response rate to a survey mailed to a nonrandom nationwide sample of 40 programs was 50…. Heart failure is a leading cause of death and the development of effective and safe therapeutic agents for heart failure has been proven challenging. In this study, taking advantage of larval zebrafish, we developed a zebrafish heart failure model for drug screening and efficacy assessment.

Tested drugs were administered into zebrafish either by direct soaking or circulation microinjection. After treatment, zebrafish were randomly selected and subjected to either visual observation and image acquisition or record videos under a Zebralab Blood Flow System.

The therapeutic effects of drugs on zebrafish heart failure were quantified by calculating the efficiency of heart dilatation, venous congestion, cardiac output, and blood flow dynamics. Nanocomposites: suitable alternatives as antimicrobial agents. The exploration of nanocomposites has gained a strong research following over the last decade.

These materials have been heavily exploited in several fields, with applications ranging from biosensors to biomedicine. Among these applications, great advances have been made in the field of microbiology, specifically as antimicrobial agents.

This review aims to provide a comprehensive account of various nanocomposites that elucidate promising antimicrobial activity. The composition, physical and chemical properties, as well as the antimicrobial performance of these nanocomposites, are discussed in detail.

Alternative chemotherapeutic agents : nitrosoureas, cisplatin, irinotecan. Irinotecan, cisplatin, and nitrosoureas have a long history of use in brain tumors, with demonstrated efficacy in the adjuvant treatment of malignant gliomas. In the era of temozolomide with concurrent radiotherapy given as the standard of care, their use has shifted to treatment at progression or recurrence.

Now with the widespread use of bevacizumab in the recurrent setting, irinotecan and other chemotherapies are seeing increased use in combination with bevacizumab and alone in the recurrent setting. The activity of these chemotherapeutic agents in brain tumors will likely ensure a place in the armamentarium of neuro-oncologists for many years.

Published by Elsevier Inc. Natural products as reservoirs of novel therapeutic agents. Since ancient times, natural products from plants, animals, microbial and marine sources have been exploited for treatment of several diseases. The knowledge of our ancestors is the base of modern drug discovery process. However, due to the presence of extensive biodiversity in natural sources, the percentage of secondary metabolites screened for bioactivity is low.

This review aims to provide a brief overview of historically significant natural therapeutic agents along with some current potential drug candidates. It will also provide an insight into pros and cons of natural product discovery and how development of recent approaches has answered the challenges associated with it. Federal Register , , , , These macromolecular imaging agents Enhanced Delivery of Therapeutic Agents '', U.

RNA interference RNAi is being widely used in functional gene research and is an important tool for drug discovery. However, canonical double-stranded short interfering RNAs are unstable and induce undesirable adverse effects, and thus there is no currently RNAi-based therapy in the clinic. We have developed a novel class of RNAi agents , and evaluated their effectiveness in vitro and in mouse models of acute lung injury ALI and pulmonary fibrosis.

They are resistant to degradation and suppress their target genes. Protease inhibitors as potential therapeutic agents for AIDS. A decade since the epidemic of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome AIDS was first recognized, a wealth of information has accumulated on the molecular biology of the causative agents , the human immunodeficiency viruses HIV.

Of particular interest is knowledge of the viral enzymes involved in the formation of new virus particles. Such enzymes constitute attractive targets for efforts aimed at selecting agents that interfere with virus multiplication and subsequent spread and pathogenesis. Already, several agents that inhibit the viral reverse transcriptase e. A second enzyme that has recently attracted attention is the virus-coded protease.

This enzyme is involved in the cleavage of viral precursor polyproteins into the final products that constitute the mature virus particle. Protease inhibitors interfere with the process of virus maturation which is required for the formation of infective virus particles.

Several custom-made inhibitors with a high selective action against HIV protease have been produced recently. They are nonhydrolyzable peptide analogs that mimic the cleavage sequences of the natural substrate of the enzyme during the transition state of the cleavage reaction. It is hoped that a similar selectivity in vivo may make protease inhibitors a promising new category of AIDS therapeutics. Heparin is a glycosaminoglycan mixture currently used in prophylaxis and treatment of thrombosis.

Heparin possesses non-anticoagulant properties, including modulation of various proteases, interactions with fibroblast growth factors, and anti-inflammatory actions. Vascular factors are also involved in the pathogenesis of senile dementia. Inflammation, endogenous proteoglycans, and assembly of senile plagues and neurofibrillary tangles contribute directly and indirectly to further neuronal damage. Neuron salvage can be achieved by anti-inflammation and the competitive inhibition of proteoglycans accumulation.

The complexity of the pathology of senile dementia provides numerous potential targets for therapeutic interventions designed to modulate inflammation and proteoglycan assembly. Heparin and related oligosaccharides are known to exhibit anti-inflammatory effects as well as inhibitory effects on proteoglycan assembly and may prove useful as neuroprotective agents. Therapeutic drug monitoring of intracellular anti-infective agents.

Many microorganisms, including viruses, some bacteria and fungi, replicate within the cells. Therefore, the efficacy of therapy and the selection of resistances could be related to intracellular concentration of the drugs and to their ability to cross biological membranes and penetrate into various tissue compartments.

The efficacy of treatment may be limited by pharmacological factors. Dose-response relationship exists for many agents , and failure to maintain adequate concentrations may allow the development of viral or bacterial resistance, thereby decreasing the probability of response of current and subsequent therapies. The major target of antivirals and many other anti-infective agents is within infected cells. Therefore, clinical outcome ultimately should be related to intracellular drug concentrations.

Intracellular pharmacokinetics provides information regarding drug disposition in a compartment where microorganism replication occurs and combined with plasma data may be useful in understanding therapeutic failure in relation to cellular resistance. With a focus on possible methodological biases, this review reports the current state of the art in intracellular, particularly in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, therapeutic drug monitoring of the following anti-infective drugs: antivirals, antifungals and antibiotics.

Such relationships should be interpreted with caution, as intracellular concentrations reflect the total amount of drug within the cell and not the effective unbound fraction. The number of clinical studies in that area is, however, rather limited, and not always adequately designed.

Then, intracellular drug determination has to be considered a test for research only and not to be carried out. Preclinical Research Miniature proteins are a class of oligopeptide characterized by their short sequence lengths and ability to adopt well-folded, three-dimensional structures. Because of their biomimetic nature and synthetic tractability, miniature proteins have been used to study a range of biochemical processes including fast protein folding, signal transduction, catalysis and molecular transport.

Recently, miniature proteins have been gaining traction as potential therapeutic agents because their small size and ability to fold into defined tertiary structures facilitates their development as protein-based drugs. This research overview discusses emerging developments involving the use of miniature proteins as scaffolds to design novel therapeutics for the treatment and study of human disease.

Specifically, this review will explore strategies to: i stabilize miniature protein tertiary structure; ii optimize biomolecular recognition by grafting functional epitopes onto miniature protein scaffolds; and iii enhance cytosolic delivery of miniature proteins through the use of cationic motifs that facilitate endosomal escape.

These objectives are discussed not only to address challenges in developing effective miniature protein-based drugs, but also to highlight the tremendous potential miniature proteins hold for combating and understanding human disease. Drug Dev Res 78 : , Functional polymers as therapeutic agents : concept to market place.

Biologically active synthetic polymers have received considerable scientific interest and attention in recent years for their potential as promising novel therapeutic agents to treat human diseases. Although a significant amount of research has been carried out involving polymer-linked drugs as targeted and sustained release drug delivery systems and prodrugs, examples on bioactive polymers that exhibit intrinsic therapeutic properties are relatively less. Several appealing characteristics of synthetic polymers including high molecular weight, molecular architecture, and controlled polydispersity can all be utilized to discover a new generation of therapies.

For example, high molecular weight bioactive polymers can be restricted to gastrointestinal tract, where they can selectively recognize, bind, and remove target disease causing substances from the body. The appealing features of GI tract restriction and stability in biological environment render these polymeric drugs to be devoid of systemic toxicity that are generally associated with small molecule systemic drugs.

The present article highlights recent developments in the rational design and synthesis of appropriate functional polymers that have resulted in a number of promising polymer based therapies and biomaterials, including some marketed products. Tackling obesity: new therapeutic agents for assisted weight loss. The pandemic of overweight and obesity continues to rise in an alarming rate in western countries and around the globe representing a major public health challenge in desperate need for new strategies tackling obesity.

In the United States nearly two thirds of the population is overweight or obese. Worldwide the number of persons who are overweight or obese exceeded 1. These rising figures have been clearly associated with increased morbidity and mortality. For example, in the Framingham study, the risk of death increases with each additional pound of weight gain even in the relatively younger population between 30 and 42 years of age.

Overweight and obesity are also associated with increased co-morbid conditions such as diabetes, hypertension and cardiovascular disease as well as certain types of cancer. In this review we discuss the epidemic of obesity, highlighting the pathophysiologic mechanisms of weight gain. We also provide an overview of the assessment of overweight and obese individuals discussing possible secondary causes of obesity.

In a detailed section we discuss the currently approved therapeutic interventions for obesity highlighting their mechanisms of action and evidence of their efficacy and safety as provided in clinical trials. Finally, we discuss novel therapeutic interventions that are in various stages of development with a special section on the weight loss effects of anti-diabetic medications.

These agents are particularly attractive options for our growing population of obese diabetic individuals. Terpenoids as potential chemopreventive and therapeutic agents in liver cancer. Despite significant advances in medicine, liver cancer, predominantly hepatocellular carcinoma remains a major cause of death in the United States as well as the rest of the world.

As limited treatment options are currently available to patients with liver cancer, novel preventive control and effective therapeutic approaches are considered to be reasonable and decisive measures to combat this disease. Several naturally occurring dietary and non-dietary phytochemicals have shown enormous potential in the prevention and treatment of several cancers, especially those of the gastrointestinal tract. Terpenoids, the largest group of phytochemicals, traditionally used for medicinal purposes in India and China, are currently being explored as anticancer agents in clinical trials.

A large number of terpenoids exhibit cytotoxicity against a variety of tumor cells and cancer preventive as well as anticancer efficacy in preclinical animal models. This review critically examines the potential role of naturally occurring terpenoids, from diverse origins, in the chemoprevention and treatment of liver tumors. Both in vitro and in vivo effects of these agents and related cellular and molecular mechanisms are highlighted. Potential challenges and future directions involved in the advancement of these promising natural compounds in the chemoprevention and therapy of human liver cancer are also discussed.

Recombinant mumps virus as a cancer therapeutic agent. Mumps virus belongs to the family of Paramyxoviridae and has the potential to be an oncolytic agent. Mumps virus Urabe strain had been tested in the clinical setting as a treatment for human cancer four decades ago in Japan. These clinical studies demonstrated that mumps virus could be a promising cancer therapeutic agent that showed significant antitumor activity against various types of cancers.

Since oncolytic virotherapy was not in the limelight until the beginning of the 21st century, the interest to pursue mumps virus for cancer treatment slowly faded away. Recent success stories of oncolytic clinical trials prompted us to resurrect the mumps virus and to explore its potential for cancer treatment.

We have obtained the Urabe strain of mumps virus from Osaka University, Japan, which was used in the earlier human clinical trials. In this report we describe the development of a reverse genetics system from a major isolate of this Urabe strain mumps virus stock, and the construction and characterization of several recombinant mumps viruses with additional transgenes. We present initial data demonstrating these recombinant mumps viruses have oncolytic activity against tumor cell lines in vitro and some efficacy in preliminary pilot animal tumor models.

Ultrasound-mediated ocular delivery of therapeutic agents : a review. Due to numerous anatomical and physiological barriers, ocular drug delivery remains a major limitation in the treatment of diseases such as glaucoma, macular degeneration or inflammatory diseases. To date, only invasive approaches provide clinically effective results. Ultrasound can be defined as the propagation of a high-frequency sound wave exposing the propagation media to mechanical and thermal effects.

Ultrasound has been proposed as a non-invasive physical agent for increasing therapeutic agent delivery in various fields of medicine. Areas covered: An update on recent advances in transscleral and transcorneal ultrasound-mediated drug delivery is presented.

Efficient drug delivery is achieved in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo for various types of materials. Numerous studies indicate that efficacy is related to cavitation. Although slight reversible effects can be observed on the corneal epithelium, efficient drug delivery can be performed without causing damage to the cornea.

Expert opinion: Recent developments prove the potential of ultrasound-mediated ocular drug delivery. Cavitation appears to be a preponderant mechanism, opening a way to treatment monitoring by cavitation measurement. Even if no clinical studies have yet been performed, the promising results summarized here are promoting developments toward clinical applications, particularly in assessing the safety of the technique.

Deoxypodophyllotoxin: a promising therapeutic agent from herbal medicine. Recently, biologically active compounds isolated from plants used in herbal medicine have been the center of interest. Deoxypodophyllotoxin DPT , structurally closely related to the lignan podophyllotoxin, is a potent antitumor and anti-inflammatory agent. However, DPT has not been used clinically yet. Also, DPT from natural sources seems to be unavailable. Hence, it is important to establish alternative resources for the production of such lignan; especially that it is used as a precursor for the semi-synthesis of the cytostatic drugs etoposide phosphate and teniposide.

The update paper provides an overview of DPT as an effective anticancer natural compound and a leader for cytotoxic drugs synthesis and development in order to highlight the gaps in our knowledge and explore future research needs. The present review covers the literature available from to The information was collected via electronic search using Chinese papers and the major scientific databases including PubMed, Sciencedirect, Web of Science and Google Scholar using the keywords.

All abstracts and full-text articles reporting database on the history and current status of DPT were gathered and analyzed. Plants containing DPT have played an important role in traditional medicine. In light of the in vitro pharmacological investigations, DPT is a high valuable medicinal agent that has anti-tumor, anti-proliferative, anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic properties.

Further, DPT is an important precursor for the cytotoxic aryltetralin lignan, podophyllotoxin, which is used to obtain semisynthetic derivatives like etoposide and teniposide used in cancer therapy. However, most studies have focused on the in vitro data. Therefore, DPT has not been used clinically yet. DPT has emerged as a potent chemical agent from herbal medicine. Therefore, in vivo studies are needed to carry out clinical trials in humans and enable the development of new anti-cancer agents.

In addition, DPT from commercial. Diabetic wounds are unlike typical wounds in that they are slower to heal, making treatment with conventional topical medications an uphill process. Among several different alternative therapies, honey is an effective choice because it provides comparatively rapid wound healing. Although honey has been used as an alternative medicine for wound healing since ancient times, the application of honey to diabetic wounds has only recently been revived. Because honey has some unique natural features as a wound healer, it works even more effectively on diabetic wounds than on normal wounds.

In this review, the potential role of honey's antibacterial activity on diabetic wound-related microorganisms and honey's clinical effectiveness in treating diabetic wounds based on the most recent studies is described. Additionally, ways in which honey can be used as a safer, faster, and effective healing agent for diabetic wounds in comparison with other synthetic medications in terms of microbial resistance and treatment costs are also described to support its traditional claims.

Andrographolide, a potential cancer therapeutic agent isolated from Andrographis paniculata. Andrographis paniculata plant extract is known to possess a variety of pharmacological activities. Andrographolide, the major constituent of the extract is implicated towards its pharmacological activity. We studied the cellular processes and targets modulated by andrographolide treatment in human cancer and immune cells.

Andrographolide treatment inhibited the in vitro proliferation of different tumor cell lines, representing various types of cancers. Immunostimulatory activity of andrographolide is evidenced by increased proliferation of lymphocytes and production of interleukin Andrographolide also enhanced the tumor necrosis factor-alpha production and CD marker expression, resulting in increased cytotoxic activity of lymphocytes against cancer cells, which may contribute for its indirect anticancer activity.

The in vivo anticancer activity of the compound is further substantiated against B16F0 melanoma syngenic and HT xenograft models. These results suggest that andrographolide is an interesting pharmacophore with anticancer and immunomodulatory activities and hence has the potential for being developed as a cancer therapeutic agent.

Astaxanthin is a xanthophyll carotenoid present in microalgae, fungi, complex plants, seafood, flamingos and quail. It is an antioxidant with anti-inflammatory properties and as such has potential as a therapeutic agent in atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Synthetic forms of astaxanthin have been manufactured.

The safety, bioavailability and effects of astaxanthin on oxidative stress and inflammation that have relevance to the pathophysiology of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, have been assessed in a small number of clinical studies. No adverse events have been reported and there is evidence of a reduction in biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammation with astaxanthin administration. Experimental studies in several species using an ischaemia-reperfusion myocardial model demonstrated that astaxanthin protects the myocardium when administered both orally or intravenously prior to the induction of the ischaemic event.

Cardiovascular clinical trials are warranted based on the physicochemical and antioxidant properties, the safety profile and preliminary experimental cardiovascular studies of astaxanthin. Aldose reductase AR in the lens plays an important role in the pathogenesis of diabetic cataract DC by contributing to osmotic and oxidative stress associated with accelerated glucose metabolism through the polyol pathway. Therefore, inhibition of AR in the lens may hold the key to prevent DC formation.

Emodin, a bioactive compound isolated from plants, has been implicated as a therapy for diabetes. However, its inhibitory activity against AR remains unclear. Enzyme kinetic studies demonstrated an uncompetitive inhibition against AR with a corresponding inhibition constant of 2. In in vivo studies, oral administration of emodin reduced the incidence and severity of morphological markers of cataract in lenses of AR transgenic mice.

All the findings above provide encouraging evidence for emodin as a potential therapeutic agent to prevent cataract in diabetic patients. VIP as a potential therapeutic agent in gram negative sepsis. Gram negative sepsis remains a high cause of mortality and places a great burden on public health finance in both the developed and developing world.

Treatment of sepsis, using antibiotics, is often ineffective since pathology associated with the disease occurs due to dysregulation of the immune system failure to return to steady state conditions which continues after the bacteria, which induced the immune response, have been cleared.

Immune modulation is therefore a rational approach to the treatment of sepsis but to date no drug has been developed which is highly effective, cheap and completely safe to use. One potential therapeutic agent is VIP, which is a natural peptide and is highly homologous in all vertebrates. In this review we will discuss the effect of VIP on components of the immune system, relevant to gram negative sepsis, and present data from animal models.

Furthermore we will hypothesise on how these studies could be improved in future and speculate on the possible different ways in which VIP could be used in clinical medicine. Despite the considerable advancements in the development of antimicrobial agents , incidents of epidemics due to multi drug resistance in microorganisms have created a massive hazard to mankind. Due to increased resistance against conventional antibiotics, researchers and pharmaceutical industries are more concerned about novel therapeutic agents for the prevention of bacterial infections.

Enormous wealth of traditional system of medicine gains importance in health therapies over again. With ancient credentials of potent medicinal plants, various herbal remedies came forward for the management of bacterial infections.

The Ayurvedic approach facilitates the development of new therapeutic agents due to structural and functional diversity among phytochemicals. The abundance and diversity is responsible for the characterization of new lead structures from medicinal plants. Industrial interest has increased due to recent research advancements viz.

The review certainly emphasizes on the traditional medicines as alternatives to conventional chemotherapeutic drugs. The review briefly describes mode of action of various antibiotics and resistance mechanisms. This review focuses on the chemical diversity and various mechanisms of action of phytochemicals against bacterial pathogens. Matricellular proteins in drug delivery: Therapeutic targets, active agents , and therapeutic localization. Extracellular matrix is composed of a complex array of molecules that together provide structural and functional support to cells.

These properties are mainly mediated by the activity of collagenous and elastic fibers, proteoglycans, and proteins such as fibronectin and laminin. ECM composition is tissue-specific and could include matricellular proteins whose primary role is to modulate cell-matrix interactions. In adults, matricellular proteins are primarily expressed during injury, inflammation and disease. Particularly, they are closely associated with the progression and prognosis of cardiovascular and fibrotic diseases, and cancer.

This review aims to provide an overview of the potential use of matricellular proteins in drug delivery including the generation of therapeutic agents based on the properties and structures of these proteins as well as their utility as biomarkers for specific diseases. In recent years, there has been an increased interest of researchers in developing efficient plant heterologous expression systems of proteins for a wide range of applications. It represents an alternative to the traditional strategy utilizing bacterial, yeast, insect or mammalian cells.

New techniques of identification and characterization and effective methods of plant genetic transformation allow the range of recombinant protein products to be expanded. Great expectations are associated with the use of plants as bioreactors for the production of specific proteins of therapeutic interest. This strategy offers a number of advantages, the most important being: the possibility of a significant reduction in production costs, the safety of the products obtained and full eukaryotic post-translational modifications of proteins.

A group of proteins of special interest is pharmaceuticals, and a number of successful experiments have confirmed the possibility of obtaining heterogeneous proteins with therapeutic potential: monoclonal antibodies, vaccine antigens, and a variety of cytokines. This work is focused on selected recombinant proteins belonging to those groups expression of which was achieved in plant cells.

These proteins may be used in the future for therapy or prevention of viral, bacterial or cancer diseases. Rheumatoid arthritis RA is an autoimmune disease of unknown etiology and is mainly characterized by the progressive erosion of cartilage leading to chronic polyarthritis and joint distortion.

Although the exact pathogenesis of the disease has yet not been elucidated, however, studies suggest that cellular proliferation of synoviocytes result in pannus formation which damages the cartilage and bone. Recent reports also support the role of free radicals in its pathogenesis. Apart from the conventional treatment strategies using nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, disease modifying antirheumatic drugs and glucocorticoids, newer and safer drugs are continuously being searched, as long term usage of these drugs have resulted in adverse effects.

Alternative medicine provides another approach for treatment of RA and currently a number of medicinal plants are under scientific evaluation to develop a novel drug. There is a dire need to investigate the complete therapeutic potential and adverse effects, if any, of these herbals for providing newer and safer treatment options with minimum side effects. In this review we have tried to explore various Indian ancient Ayurvedic, Unani and Tibbi, as also some Chinese and Korean, herbals for their potential to treat RA.

Platelet activation plays a major role in cardio and cerebrovascular diseases, and cancer progression. Disruption of platelet activation represents an attractive therapeutic target for reducing the bidirectional cross talk between platelets and tumor cells. Platinum Pt compounds have been used for treating cancer.

Hence, replacing Pt with iridium Ir is considered a potential alternative. Neither the adenylate cyclase inhibitor nor the guanylate cyclase inhibitor reversed the Irmediated antiplatelet effects. In experimental mice, Ir prolonged the bleeding time and reduced mortality associated with acute pulmonary thromboembolism. Therefore, Ir can be considered a new therapeutic agent against either arterial thrombosis or the bidirectional cross talk between platelets and tumor cells.

Protein based therapeutic delivery agents : Contemporary developments and challenges. As unique biopolymers, proteins can be employed for therapeutic delivery. They bear important features such as bioavailability, biocompatibility, and biodegradability with low toxicity serving as a platform for delivery of various small molecule therapeutics , gene therapies, protein biologics and cells.

Depending on size and characteristic of the therapeutic , a variety of natural and engineered proteins or peptides have been developed. This, coupled to recent advances in synthetic and chemical biology, has led to the creation of tailor-made protein materials for delivery.

This review highlights strategies employing proteins to facilitate the delivery of therapeutic matter, addressing the challenges for small molecule, gene, protein and cell transport. Cyclic peptides as potential therapeutic agents for skin disorders.

There is an increasing understanding of the role of peptides in normal skin function and skin disease. With this knowledge, there is significant interest in the application of peptides as therapeutics in skin disease or as cosmeceuticals to enhance skin appearance. In particular, antimicrobial peptides and those involved in inflammatory processes provide options for the development of new therapeutic directions in chronic skin conditions such as psoriasis and dermatitis.

To exploit their potential, it is essential that these peptides are delivered to their site of action in active form and in sufficient quantity to provide the desired effect. Many polymers permeate the skin poorly and are vulnerable to enzymatic degradation. Synthesis of cyclic peptide derivatives can substantially alter the physicochemical characteristics of the peptide with the potential to improve its skin permeation.

In addition, cyclization can stabilize the peptide structure and thereby increase its stability. This review describes the role of cyclic peptides in the skin, examples of current cyclic peptide therapeutic products, and the potential for cyclic peptides as dermatological therapeutics and cosmeceuticals.

The emergence of multidrug resistant bacteria has a direct impact on global public health because of the reduced potency of existing antibiotics against pathogens. Hence, there is a pressing need for new drugs with different modes of action that can kill microorganisms. Antimicrobial peptides AMPs can be regarded as an alternative tool for this purpose because they are proven to have therapeutic effects with broad-spectrum activities.

There are some hurdles in using AMPs as clinical candidates such as toxicity, lack of stability and high budgets required for manufacturing. These are emerging as an attractive class of therapeutic agents with high potential for clinical use and possessing multifunctional activities. In this review we attempted to compile those SAMPs that have exhibited biological properties which are believed to hold promise for the future. Cisplatin encapsulated nanoparticle as a therapeutic agent for anticancer treatment.

The knowledge of manipulating size of biomaterials encapsulated drug into nano-scale particles has been researched and developed in treating cancer. Cancer is the second worldwide cause of death, therefore it is critical to treat cancers challenging with therapeutic modality of various mechanisms. Our preliminary investigation has studied cisplatin encapsulated into lipid-based nanoparticle and examined the therapeutic effect on xenografted animal model.

The effect of the treatment was observed for 12 days post-injection. Our findings have shown to be a potential modality to further investigate as a feasible cancer therapy modality. Alternative to xylene as a clearing agent in histopathology.

Xylene is the clearing agent used most commonly worldwide. Xylene is toxic and therefore a threat to personnel working in histopathology laboratories. We evaluated a safer alternative clearing agent for use in the histopathology laboratory. Tissues were evaluated for eight parameters: sectioning, nuclear staining, cytoplasmic staining, overall cell morphology, clarity of staining, uniformity of staining, quality of immunohistochemistry IHC , and cost.

However, further studies are required. BW and the routes of administration oral gavaging with corn oil or dietary supplementation in inhibiting the growth of PC-3 tumors. We found Although dietary supplementation was labor-efficient, the intake of the active agents could not be controlled because the Herbal medicines usually contain multiple bioactive compo- nents with specific biological activities and.

The gold chloride solution was prepared using 0. Synthesis and clinical Evaluation. Anticancer Agents Med. McLane, M. Disintegrins in health and disease. Alternative splicing is a well-studied gene regulatory mechanism that produces biological diversity by allowing the production of multiple protein isoforms from a single gene. An involvement of alternative splicing in the key biological signalling Hippo pathway is emerging and offers new therapeutic avenues.

This review discusses examples of alternative splicing in the Hippo pathway, how deregulation of these processes may contribute to disease and whether these processes offer new potential therapeutic targets. Alternative splicing in cancers: From aberrant regulation to new therapeutics.

Alternative splicing is one of the most common mechanisms for gene regulation in humans, and plays a vital role to increase the complexity of functional proteins. In this article, we seek to provide a general review on the relationships between alternative splicing and tumorigenesis.

We briefly introduce the basic rules for regulation of alternative splicing, and discuss recent advances on dynamic regulation of alternative splicing in cancers by highlighting the roles of a variety of RNA splicing factors in tumorigenesis. We further discuss several important questions regarding the splicing of long noncoding RNAs and back-splicing of circular RNAs in cancers.

Finally, we discuss the current technologies that can be used to manipulate alternative splicing and serve as potential cancer treatment. Progranulin as a biomarker and potential therapeutic agent. Progranulin is a cysteine-rich secreted protein with diverse pleiotropic actions and participates in several processes, such as inflammation or tumorigenesis.

Progranulin was first identified as a growth factor and, recently, it was characterised as an adipokine implicated in obesity, insulin resistance and rheumatic disease. At a central level, progranulin acts as a neurotropic and neuroprotective factor and protects from neural degeneration. In this review, we summarise the most recent research advances concerning the potential role of progranulin as a therapeutic target and biomarker in cancer, neurodegenerative and inflammatory diseases.

Pyrrole: An emerging scaffold for construction of valuable therapeutic agents. Pyrrole derivatives comprise a class of biologically active heterocyclic compounds which can serve as promising scaffolds for antimicrobial, antiviral, antimalarial, antitubercular, anti-inflammatory and enzyme inhibiting drugs. Due to their inimitable anticancer and anti-tubercular properties, researchers were inspired to develop novel pyrrole derivatives for the treatment of MDR pathogens.

In the present review the main target is to focus on the development of pyrrole mimics, with emphasis based on their structure activity relationship SAR. The present review is being obliging for the future development of pyrrole therapeutics. Stroke is a disease of aging affecting millions of people worldwide, and recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator r-tPA is the only treatment approved.

However, r-tPA has a low therapeutic window and secondary effects which limit its beneficial outcome, urging thus the search for new more efficient therapies. Among them, neuroprotection based on melatonin or nitrones, as free radical traps, have arisen as drug candidates due to their strong antioxidant power. In this Perspective article, an update on the specific results of the melatonin and several new nitrones are presented. Erythropoietin: new approaches to improved molecular designs and therapeutic alternatives.

Erythropoietin Epo is a glycoprotein hormone that is the prime regulator of erythropoiesis. Recombinant Epo is a highly effective pharmaceutical used to correct anemias associated with renal insufficiency, cancer and other diseases. Efforts to increase its efficacy in vivo by manipulating the protein's structure have met with some success, and novel Epo-like agents are in development.

Additionally, efforts to create Epo mimetic agents are underway, as is the design of agents to increase endogenous production. Because Epo has tissue protective actions outside of erythropoiesis, other designs have focused on producing erythropoietically inactive molecules that still retain extra-hematopoietic activity. The demonstration that Epo can trigger signaling in some cancer cells with, potentially, adverse effects on patient health has raised warning signs in the medical community and has gained the attention of regulatory authorities.

Resveratrol as a Therapeutic Agent for Alzheimer's Disease. Alzheimer's disease AD is the most common cause of dementia, but there is no effective therapy till now. Exactly, resveratrol, a polyphenol in red wine and many plants, is indicated to show the neuroprotective effect on mechanisms mostly above. Recent years, there are numerous researches about resveratrol acting on AD in many models, both in vitro and in vivo. However, the effects of resveratrol are limited by its pool bioavailability; therefore researchers have been trying a variety of methods to improve the efficiency.

This review summarizes the recent studies in cell cultures and animal models, mainly discusses the molecular mechanisms of the neuroprotective effects of resveratrol, and thus investigates the therapeutic potential in AD. Antimicrobial peptides AMPs , also known as host defense peptides, are short and generally positively charged peptides found in a wide variety of life forms from microorganisms to humans.

Most AMPs have the ability to kill microbial pathogens directly, whereas others act indirectly by modulating the host defense systems. Against a background of rapidly increasing resistance development to conventional antibiotics all over the world, efforts to bring AMPs into clinical use are accelerating. Several AMPs are currently being evaluated in clinical trials as novel anti-infectives, but also as new pharmacological agents to modulate the immune response, promote wound healing, and prevent post-surgical adhesions.

In this review, we provide an overview of the biological role, classification, and mode of action of AMPs, discuss the opportunities and challenges to develop these peptides for clinical applications, and review the innovative formulation strategies for application of AMPs.

Phosphates are used as moisture retention agents MRAs by the shrimp industry. Although they are effective, phosphates are expensive, need to be listed on a food label, and overuse can often lead to a higher product cost for consumers. Polysaccharides were researched as alternative MRAs. Polysaccharides are usually inexpensive, are considered natural, and can have nutritional benefits. Research was conducted to determine whether polysaccharides yielded similar functional impacts as phosphates.

Treatments included a 0. Experimental treatments were compared to a distilled water control to gauge effectiveness. Freezing, boiling, and oven drying studies were performed to determine how moisture retention in shrimp differed using these different treatments. Water activity was measured to determine any potential differences in shelf life. Solution uptake was also determined to understand how well the treatments enhanced water binding. The 0.

None of the treatments had a major effect on water activity. All treatments were rated similar in consumer sensory acceptability tests except for pectin, which was rated lower by the sensory panel. Overall, polysaccharides were found to be viable alternatives to phosphates. Cyclic AMP efflux inhibitors as potential therapeutic agents for leukemia. Apoptotic evasion is a hallmark of cancer. We propose that some cancers may evade cell death by regulating 3'-5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate cAMP , which is associated with pro-apoptotic signaling.

We hypothesize that leukemic cells possess mechanisms that efflux cAMP from the cytoplasm, thus protecting them from apoptosis. We developed a novel assay to assess cAMP efflux and performed screens to identify inhibitors. In an acute myeloid leukemia AML model, several identified compounds reduced cAMP efflux, appropriately modulated pathways that are responsive to cAMP elevation cAMP-responsive element-binding protein phosphorylation, and deactivation of Very Late Antigen-4 integrin , and induced mitochondrial depolarization and caspase activation.

Blocking adenylyl cyclase activity was sufficient to reduce effects of the most potent compounds. These compounds also decreased cAMP efflux and viability of B-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia B-ALL cell lines and primary patient samples, but not of normal primary peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Our data suggest that cAMP efflux is a functional feature that could be therapeutically targeted in leukemia.

Furthermore, because some of the identified drugs are currently used for treating other illnesses, this work creates an opportunity for repurposing. Rotavirus RV infections cause severe diarrhea in infants and young children worldwide. Vaccines are available but cost prohibitive for many countries and only reduce severe symptoms.

Vaccinated infants continue to shed infectious particles, and studies show decreased efficacy of the RV vaccines in tropical and subtropical countries where they are needed most. Continuing surveillance for new RV strains, assessment of vaccine efficacy, and development of cost effective antiviral drugs remain an important aspect of RV studies.

This study was to determine the efficacy of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory stilbenoids to inhibit RV replication. Peanut A. It is therefore important to employ novel tools for the design and the development of new antibiotics from the untapped animal venoms of snake, scorpion, and spider for treating resistant pathogens. To date, snail venom toxins have shown little antibiotic potency against human pathogens. All rights reserved. Amino acid—based surfactants: New antimicrobial agents.

The rapid increase of drug resistant bacteria makes necessary the development of new antimicrobial agents. Synthetic amino acid-based surfactants constitute a promising alternative to conventional antimicrobial compounds given that they can be prepared from renewable raw materials.

In this review, we discuss the structural features that promote antimicrobial activity of amino acid-based surfactants. Monocatenary, dicatenary and gemini surfactants that contain different amino acids on the polar head and show activity against bacteria are revised. The synthesis and basic physico-chemical properties have also been included. Neuropsychiatric Effects of Antimicrobial Agents. Antimicrobial drugs used in clinical practice are selected on the basis of their selective toxicity against bacterial cells.

However, all exhibit multiple offsite interactions with eukaryotic cell structures, resulting in adverse reactions during antimicrobial pharmacotherapy. A multitude of these side effects involve the nervous system as antimicrobials at clinically relevant concentrations seem to interact with many of the same molecules usually implicated in the action of psychotropic drugs.

The importance of such events cannot be overstated, as the misdiagnosis of an adverse drug reaction as a symptom of a primary psychiatric or neurological disorder entails great suffering for the patient affected as well as significant costs for the healthcare system.

The neuropsychiatric effects of antimicrobial drugs are extensively documented in the literature. A number of antimicrobial drugs have the potential to exert CNS effects and many are associated with stimulant, psychotomimetic and epileptogenic properties, mediated by GABA antagonism beta-lactams, quinolones and clarithromycin , NMDA agonism D-cycloserine, aminoglycosides, and perhaps quinolones , MAO inhibition linezolid, metronidazole and isoniazid weakly as well as more exotic mechanisms, as in the case of trimethoprim, isoniazid, ethambutol, rifampicin and the tetracyclines.

While those effects are generally undesirable, they may also under certain circumstances be beneficial, and further research is warranted in that direction. Nanoparticles as potential new generation broad spectrum antimicrobial agents. The rapid emergence of antimicrobial resistant strains to conventional antimicrobial agents has complicated and prolonged infection treatment and increased mortality risk globally. Furthermore, some of the conventional antimicrobial agents are unable to cross certain cell membranes thus, restricting treatment of intracellular pathogens.

Therefore, the disease-causing-organisms tend to persist in these cells. However, the emergence of nanoparticle NP technology has come with the promising broad spectrum NP- antimicrobial agents due to their vast physiochemical and functionalization properties. In fact, NP- antimicrobial agents are able to unlock the restrictions experienced by conventional antimicrobial agents.

This review discusses the status quo of NP- antimicrobial agents as potent broad spectrum antimicrobial agents , sterilization and wound healing agents , and sustained inhibitors of intracellular pathogens. Indeed, the perspective of developing potent NP- antimicrobial agents that carry multiple-functionality will revolutionize clinical medicine and play a significant role in alleviating disease burden.

Antimicrobial peptides: Possible anti-infective agents. Multidrug-resistant bacterial, fungal, viral, and parasitic infections are major health threats. The Infectious Diseases Society of America has expressed concern on the decrease of pharmaceutical companies working on antibiotic research and development. However, small companies, along with academic research institutes, are stepping forward to develop novel therapeutic methods to overcome the present healthcare situation.

Among the leading alternatives to current drugs are antimicrobial peptides AMPs , which are abundantly distributed in nature. AMPs exhibit broad-spectrum activity against a wide variety of bacteria, fungi, viruses, and parasites, and even cancerous cells. They also show potential immunomodulatory properties, and are highly responsive to infectious agents and innate immuno-stimulatory molecules. In recent years, many AMPs have undergone or are undergoing clinical development, and a few are commercially available for topical and other applications.

In this review, we outline selected anion and cationic AMPs which are at various stages of development, from preliminary analysis to clinical drug development. Moreover, we also consider current production methods and delivery tools for AMPs, which must be improved for the effective use of these agents. Antimicrobial and physical characteristics of orthodontic primers containing antimicrobial agents.

To compare the antimicrobial and physical properties of experimental primers containing chlorhexidine CHX or ursolic acid UA with a commercial primer. The antimicrobial activity of the three primers TX, TX-CHX, and TX-UA against Streptococcus mutans in both planktonic and biofilm phases was analyzed by determining minimum inhibitory and bactericidal concentrations and by performing growth and biofilm assays.

Growth and biofilm assays were performed in both the absence and presence of thermocycling in a water tank to analyze the effects of water aging on the antimicrobial activities of primers. After bonding brackets onto bovine incisors using the primers, shear bond strength and mode of fracture were analyzed to compare physical properties. There was no significant difference in either shear bond strength or bond failure interface among the primers.

Incorporation of CHX into an orthodontic primer may help prevent enamel demineralization around surfaces without compromising its physical properties. Plant Products as Antimicrobial Agents. The use of and search for drugs and dietary supplements derived from plants have accelerated in recent years. Traditional healers have long used plants to prevent or cure infectious conditions; Western medicine is trying to duplicate their successes.

Plants are rich in a wide variety of secondary metabolites, such as tannins, terpenoids, alkaloids, and flavonoids, which have been found in vitro to have antimicrobial properties. This review attempts to summarize the current status of botanical screening efforts, as well as in vivo studies of their effectiveness and toxicity. The structure and antimicrobial properties of phytochemicals are also addressed. Since many of these compounds are currently available as unregulated botanical preparations and their use by the public is increasing rapidly, clinicians need to consider the consequences of patients self-medicating with these preparations.

Alternatives to antibiotics: bacteriocins, antimicrobial peptides and bacteriophages. Bacteriocins, antimicrobial peptides, and bacteriophage have attracted attention as potential substitutes for, or as additions to, currently used antimicrobial compounds. This publication will review research on the potential application of these alternative antimicrobial agents to poultry production and processing.

Bacteriocins are proteinaceous compounds of bacterial origin that are lethal to bacteria other than the producing strain. It is assumed that some of the bacteria in the intestinal tract produce bacteriocins as a means to achieve a competitive advantage, and bacteriocin-producing bacteria might be a desirable part of competitive exclusion preparations.

Purified or partially purified bacteriocins could be used as preservatives or for the reduction or elimination of certain pathogens. Currently only nisin, produced by certain strains of Lactococcus lactis subsp. Exploration of the application of antimicrobial peptides from sources other than bacteria to poultry has not yet commenced to a significant extent.

Evidence for the ability of chickens to produce such antimicrobial peptides has been provided, and it is likely that these peptides play an important role in the defense against various pathogens. Bacteriophages have received renewed attention as possible agents against infecting bacteria. Evidence from several trials indicates that phage therapy can be effective under certain circumstances. Numerous obstacles for the use of phage as antimicrobials for poultry or poultry products remain.

Chiefly among them are the narrow host range of many phages, the issue of phage resistance, and the possibility of phage-mediated transfer of genetic material to bacterial hosts. Regulatory issues and the high cost of producing such alternative antimicrobial agents are also factors that might prevent application of these agents in the near future. Silanols, a New Class of Antimicrobial Agent. This equation and a significantly This multiple Antimicrobial topical agents used in the vagina.

Vaginally applied antimicrobial agents are widely used in the vagina in women with lower genital tract infections. An ' antimicrobial ' is a general term that refers to a group of drugs that are effective against bacteria, fungi, viruses and protozoa.

Topical treatments can be prescribed for a wide variety of vaginal infections. Many bacterial infections, such as bacterial vaginosis, desquamative inflammatory vaginitis or, as some European authors call it, aerobic vaginitis as well as infection with Staphylococcus aureus or group A streptococci, may be treated in this way. Candida vulvovaginitis is a fungal infection that is very amenable to topical treatment.

The most common viral infections which can be treated with topical medications are condylomata acuminata and herpes simplex. The most often encountered protozoal vaginitis, which is caused by Trichomonas vaginalis, may be susceptible to topical medications, although this infection is treated systemically.

This chapter covers the wide variety of commonly used topical antimicrobial agents for these diseases and focuses on the individual therapeutic agents and their clinical efficacy. In addition, potential difficulties that can occur in practice, as well as the usage of these medications in the special setting of pregnancy, are described in this chapter.

Karger AG, Basel. Bacteriophages show promise as antimicrobial agents. The emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria has prompted interest in alternatives to conventional drugs. One possible option is to use bacteriophages phage as antimicrobial agents. We have conducted a literature review of all Medline citations from that dealt with the therapeutic use of phage. The Polish and Soviets administered phage orally, topically or systemically to treat a wide variety of antibiotic-resistant pathogens in both adults and children.

Infections included suppurative wound infections, gastroenteritis, sepsis, osteomyelitis, dermatitis, empyemas and pneumonia; pathogens included Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Klebsiella, Escherichia, Proteus, Pseudomonas, Shigella and Salmonella spp. However, efficacy of phage was determined almost exclusively by qualitative clinical assessment of patients, and details of dosages and clinical criteria were very sketchy.

There were also six British reports describing controlled trials of phage in animal models mice, guinea pigs and livestock , measuring survival rates and other objective criteria. All of the British studies raised phage against specific pathogens then used to create experimental infections. Demonstrable efficacy against Escherichia, Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas and Staphylococcus spp. Two U. Phage is sequestered in the spleen and removed from circulation.

This can be overcome by serial passage of phage through mice to isolate mutants that resist sequestration. In conclusion, bacteriophages may show promise for treating antibiotic resistant pathogens. To facilitate further progress, directions for future research are discussed and a directory of authors from the reviewed.

Biodegradable nanoparticles for intracellular delivery of antimicrobial agents. Biodegradable nanoparticles have emerged as a promising strategy for ferrying antimicrobial agents into specific cells due to their unique properties. This review discusses the current progress and challenges of biodegradable nanoparticles for intracellular antimicrobial delivery to understand design principles for the development of ideal nanocarriers.

The intracellular delivery performances of biodegradable nanoparticles for diverse antimicrobial agents are first summarized. Second, the cellular internalization and intracellular trafficking, degradation and release kinetics of nanoparticles as well as their relation with intracellular delivery of encapsulated antimicrobial agents are provided. Third, the influences of nanoparticle properties on the cellular internalization and intracellular fate of nanoparticles and their payload antimicrobial agents are discussed.

Finally, the challenges and perspectives of nanoparticles for intracellular delivery of antimicrobial agents are addressed. The review will be helpful to the scientists who are interested in searching for more efficient nanosystem strategies for intracellular delivery of antimicrobial agents. Insights on antimicrobial resistance, biofilms and the use of phytochemicals as new antimicrobial agents. Antimicrobial resistance is one of the most serious public health problems.

This is of particular concern when bacteria become resistant to various antimicrobial agents simultaneously and when they form biofilms. Consequently, therapeutic options for the treatment of infections have become limited, leading frequently to recurrent infections, treatment failure and increase of morbidity and mortality.

Both, persistence and spread of antibiotic resistance, in combination with decreased effectiveness and increased toxicity of current antibiotics have emphasized the urgent need to search alternative sources of antimicrobial substances. Plants are recognized as a source of unexplored chemical structures with high therapeutic potential, including antimicrobial activity against clinically important microorganisms.

Additionally, phytochemicals plant secondary metabolites present several advantages over synthetic molecules, including green status and different mechanisms of action from antibiotics which could help to overcome the resistance problem. In this study, an overview of the main classes of phytochemicals with antimicrobial properties and their mode of action is presented.

A revision about the application of phytochemicals for biofilm prevention and control is also done. Moreover, the use of phytochemicals as scaffolds of new functional molecules to expand the antibiotics pipeline is reviewed. Macromolecular agents with antimicrobial potentialities: A drive to combat antimicrobial resistance. In recent years, the antimicrobial resistance AMR or multidrug resistance MDR has become a serious health concern and major challenging issue, worldwide.

After decades of negligence, the AMR has now captured global attention. The increasing number of antibiotic-resistant strains has threatened the achievements of science and medicine since it inactivates conventional antimicrobial therapeutics. The present review focuses on the utilization of bio-inspired novel constructs and their potential applications as novel antimicrobial agents.

The first part of the review describes plant-based biological macromolecules containing an immense variety of secondary metabolites, which could be potentially used as alternative strategies to combat antimicrobial resistance. The second part discusses the potential of metal-based macromolecules as effective antimicrobial platforms for preventing infections from resistant strains.

The third part comprehensively elucidates how nanoparticles, in particular, metal-integrated nanoparticles can overcome this AMR or MDR issue. Towards the end, information is given with critical concluding remarks, gaps, and finally envisioned with future considerations. Antimicrobial peptides AMPs are part of the innate immune defense mechanism of many organisms and are promising candidates to treat infections caused by pathogenic bacteria to animals and humans.

AMPs also display anticancer activities because of their ability to inactivate a wide range of cancer cells. Cancer remains a cause of high morbidity and mortality worldwide. Therefore, the development of methods for its control is desirable. Attractive alternatives include plant AMP thionins, defensins, and cyclotides, which have anticancer activities.

Here, we provide an overview of plant AMPs anticancer activities, with an emphasis on their mode of action, their selectivity, and their efficacy. Periodontal therapy using local delivery of antimicrobial agents. Here the authors determine the costs and benefits of local delivery agents for treating periodontal disease. Applying this cost-benefit analysis to patient care, however, will depend upon a clinician's expertise and a patient's value system.

Over the last decade, the rapid emergence of multidrug-resistant pathogens has become a global concern, which has prompted the search for alternative antibacterial agents for use in food animals. Antimicrobial peptides AMPs , produced by bacteria, insects, amphibians and mammals, as well as by chemical synthesis, are possible candidates for the design of new antimicrobial agents because of their natural antimicrobial properties and a low propensity for development of resistance by microorganisms.

This manuscript reviews the current knowledge of the basic biology of AMPs and their applications in non-ruminant nutrition. Antimicrobial peptides not only have broad-spectrum activity against bacteria, fungi, and viruses but also have the ability to bypass the common resistance mechanisms that are placing standard antibiotics in jeopardy. In addition, AMPs have beneficial effects on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, intestinal morphology and gut microbiota in pigs and broilers.

Therefore, AMPs have good potential as suitable alternatives to conventional antibiotics used in swine and poultry industries. Activity of 10 antimicrobial agents against intracellular Rhodococcus equi. Studies with facultative intracellular bacterial pathogens have shown that evaluation of the bactericidal activity of antimicrobial agents against intracellular bacteria is more closely associated with in vivo efficacy than traditional in vitro susceptibility testing.

The objective of this study was to determine the relative activity of 10 antimicrobial agents against intracellular Rhodococcus equi. Equine monocyte-derived macrophages were infected with virulent R. The number of intracellular R. The number of R. Numbers of R.

Differences in R. Enrofloxacin, gentamicin, and vancomycin are the most active drugs in equine monocyte-derived macrophages infected with R. Additional studies will be needed to determine if these findings correlate with in vivo efficacy. Review of new insights into antimicrobial agents. People have known the bacteria and have used various ways to deal with them, from a long time ago. Perhaps, natural antibiotics with have been the first step in fighting against pathogens. In this regard, a variety of natural and synthetic antibiotics with different origins, mechanism of action, structures and functional spectrum, have been developed and used.

Some impact on the synthesis of nucleic acids and some affect protein synthesis so destroy bacteria. There is a ring in the structure of most of the antibiotics which gives them special properties. However, despite their numerous advantages, antibiotics also have drawbacks ehich limit their use in all situations. Therefore, other approaches such as photodynamic therapy PDT and antibacterial peptides were considered as alternatives.

Photodynamic therapy PDT is a treatment that uses photosensitizing agents , along with light, to kill bacteria. The photosensitizing agents only work after they have been activated by certain kinds of light. In this paper, will reviewt hree mentioned topics, namely antibiotics, photodynamic therapy and antibacterial peptides and will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each approach briefly.

Meanwhile, many resistance mechanisms employed by bacteria to counter antimicrobial agents have been found and reported in the past decades. Based on their spatially distinct sites of action and distribution of location, antimicrobial resistance mechanisms of bacteria were categorized into three groups, coined the three lines of bacterial defense in this review.

The first line of defense is biofilms, which can be formed by most bacteria to overcome the action of antimicrobial agents. In addition, some other bacteria employ the second line of defense, the cell wall, cell membrane, and encased efflux pumps. When antimicrobial agents permeate the first two lines of defense and finally reach the cytoplasm, many bacteria will make use of the third line of defense, including alterations of intracellular materials and gene regulation to protect themselves from harm by bactericides.

The presented three lines of defense theory will help us to understand the bacterial resistance mechanisms against antimicrobial agents and design efficient strategies to overcome these resistances. The kinetics of decamethoxine liberation from medical antimicrobial textiles was studied.

The elution of decamethoxine was shown to be a complicated diffusive-kinetic process dependent on the exposure and concentration of decamethoxine. Phytotherapy as an alternative to conventional antimicrobials : combating microbial resistance. In the modern antimicrobial era, the rapid spread of resistance to antibiotics and introduction of new and mutating viruses is a global concern.

Combating antimicrobial resistant microbes AMR requires coordinated international efforts that incorporate new conventional antibiotic development as well as development of alternative drugs with antimicrobial activity, management of existing antimicrobials , and rapid detection of AMR pathogens. Areas covered: This manuscript discusses some conventional strategies to control microbial resistance.

The main purpose of the manuscript is to present information on specific herbal medicines that may serve as good treatment alternatives to conventional antimicrobials for infections sensitive to conventional as well as resistant strains of microorganisms. Expert commentary: Identification of potential new antimicrobials is challenging; however, one source for potential structurally diverse and complex antimicrobials are natural products.

Natural products may have advantages over other post-germ theory antimicrobials. Herbal products have the potential to boost host resistance to infections, particularly in immunocompromised patients. Antimicrobial broad-spectrum activity in conjunction with immunostimulatory properties may help to prevent microbial resistance to herbal medicine. As part of the efforts to broaden use of herbal medicines to treat microbial infections, pre-clinical and clinical testing guidelines of these compounds as a whole should be implemented to ensure consistency in formulation, efficacy and safety.

In vitro susceptibility of Trichomonas vaginalis to 50 antimicrobial agents. We determined the susceptibilities of five strains of Trichomonas vaginalis, one of which was metronidazole resistant, to 50 antimicrobial agents. For the metronidazole-susceptible strains, the most active agents were metronidazole, tinidazole, mebendazole, furazolidone, and anisomycin. Against the resistant strain mebendazole, furazolidone, and anisomycin were the most active. Antifungal agents , beta-lactams, macrolides, aminoglycosides, and folic acid antagonists were ineffective against all strains.

Extended stability of antimicrobial agents in administration devices. Outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy OPAT is an established approach to patient care. A lack of data on antimicrobial stability within administration devices is a barrier to service expansion, and poses an antimicrobial stewardship dilemma. Often broad-spectrum, long half-life agents are used instead of narrow-spectrum agents , which need more frequent administration, but could possibly be used if stability data were available.

To complete a comprehensive literature review of published antimicrobial stability data, and assess these against a nationally recognized minimum dataset for medicines compounded into administration devices. A total of citations were reviewed with selected for full text review. None of these papers met the inclusion criteria stipulated in the national standards. This review found no published studies that comply with UK national standards for stability testing.

We recommend further research and publication of antimicrobial stability data to support OPAT within the antimicrobial stewardship agenda. For Permissions, please email: journals. Susceptibility of Legionella pneumophila to twenty antimicrobial agents. Thirty-three isolates of Legionella pneumophila, all except one of which were clinical isolates, were tested against 20 antimicrobial agents by using an agar dilution technique. Erythromycin, rifamp]in, and rosaramycin were the most active agents tested.

Aminoglycosides, chloramphenicol, and cefoxitin also inhibited the organisms at low concentrations. Other agents , including moxalactam, cefoperazone, and cephalosporins, exhibited moderate to little activity. Tetracycline, doxycycline and minocyeline were apparently inactivated by charcoal-yeast extract medium. There was slight inoculum dependence noted with most of the antimicrobials tested, particularly the beta-lactam agents.

There was no consistent difference in susceptibility between Center for Disease Control-supplied stock strains and recent clinical isolates, but there were marked differences with some agents. Susceptibility testing needs to be standardized in view of the influence of inoculum size, strain variation, and the medium used. Mushrooms as possible antioxidant and antimicrobial agents. The aim of the study is to examine in-vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of the acetonic and methanolic extracts of the mushrooms Boletus aestivalis, Boletus edulis and Leccinum carpini.

Antioxidant activity was evaluated by using free radical scavenging activity and reducing power. In addition, total content of phenol and flavonoid in extracts were determined as pyrocatechol equivalent, and as rutin equivalent, respectively.

As a result of the study acetonic extracts from Boletus edulis was more powerful antioxidant activity with IC50 value of 4. Moreover, the tested extracts had effective reducing power. A significant relationship between total phenolic and flavonoid contents and their antioxidative activities was significantly observed. The antimicrobial activity of each extract was estimated by determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration by using microdilution plate method against five species of bacteria and five species of fungi.

Generally, the tested mushroom extracts had relatively strong antimicrobial activity against the tested microorganisms. The minimum inhibitory concentration for both extracts related to the tested bacteria and fungi were 1. The present study shows that tested mushroom species demonstrated a strong antioxidant and antimicrobial activity. It suggests that mushroom may be used as good sources of natural antioxidants and for pharmaceutical purposes in treating of various deseases.

Mushrooms as Possible Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Agents. The paper focuses on the in vitro antimicrobial activity of Lavandula angustifolia Mill. Stock solutions of chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, nystatin, and fusidic acid were tested in combination with L. The antimicrobial effect was performed using the minimum inhibitory concentration MIC microdilution assay.

Isobolograms were constructed for varying ratios. The most prominent interaction was noted when L. Lavendula angustifolia essential oil was shown in most cases to interact synergistically with conventional antimicrobials when combined in ratios where higher volumes of L. Microbial infections affect people worldwide, causing diseases with significant impact on public health, indicating the need for research and development of new antimicrobial agents. Animal venoms represent a vast and largely unexploited source of biologically active molecules with attractive candidates for the development of novel therapeutics.

Venoms consist of complex mixtures of molecules, including antimicrobial peptides AMPs. Since the discovery of AMPs, they have been studied as promising new antimicrobial drugs. Amongst the remarkable sources of AMPs with known antimicrobial activities are ants, bees, centipedes, cone snails, scorpions, snakes, spiders, and wasps.

The antimicrobial tests against bacteria, protozoans, fungi and viruses using different peptides isolated directly from crude venoms or cDNA libraries of venom glands are listed and discussed in this review, as well as hemolytic ativity. The potential of venoms as source of new compounds, including AMPs, is extensively discussed. Currently, there are six FDA-approved drugs and many others are undergoing preclinical and clinical trials. The search for antimicrobial "weapons" makes the AMPs from venoms promising candidates.

Nanostructured materials NSMs have increasingly been used as a substitute for antibiotics and additives in various products to impart microbicidal effect. In particular, use of silver nanoparticles AgNPs has garnered huge researchers' attention as potent bactericidal agent due to the inherent antimicrobial property of the silver metal.

Moreover, other nanomaterials carbon nanotubes, fullerenes, graphene, chitosan, etc. The present review exclusively emphasizes on materials that possess antimicrobial activity in nanoscale range and describes their various modes of antimicrobial action. It also entails broad classification of NSMs along with their application in various fields. Likewise, use of zinc oxide nanoparticles ZnO-NPs and titanium dioxide nanoparticles TiO2-NPs as additives in consumer merchandises and nanoscale chitosan NCH in medical products and wastewater treatment.

Furthermore, this review briefly discusses the current scenario of antimicrobial nanostructured materials aNSMs , limitations of current research and their future prospects. To put various perceptive insights on the recent advancements of such antimicrobials , an extended table is incorporated, which describes effect of NSMs of different dimensions on test microorganisms along with their potential widespread applications.

Supramolecular reactive sulphur nanoparticles: a novel and efficient antimicrobial agent. Antimicrobial resistance continues to be an inexorable threat for the biomedical and biochemical researchers. Despite the novel discoveries in drug designing and delivery, high-throughput screening and surveillance data render the prospects for new antimicrobial agents as bleak as ever.

The advent of nanotechnology, however, strengthens pharmacology by offering effective therapeutics to treat this aforementioned problem. Several nanoparticles of the known elements have already been reported for their antimicrobial efficacy. Nanosized fabrication of elemental sulphur with suitable surface modifications offers to retrieve the use of sulphur man's oldest known ecofriendly microbicide as a potential antimicrobial agent.

Sulphur nanoparticles SNPs are effective against both conventionally sulphur-resistant and sulphur-susceptible microbes fungi and bacteria. Moreover, biocompatible polymers present on the surface of SNPs minimize toxicity during application. Here, we focus on various aspects of physicochemical features of SNPs and their biochemical interactions with microbes. The present review also illustrates the effects of SNPs on plants and animals in terms of cytotoxicity and biocompatibility.

Metal oxide nanoparticles as antimicrobial agents : a promise for the future. Microbial infectious diseases are a global threat to human health. Excess and improper use of antibiotics has created antimicrobial -resistant microbes that can defy clinical treatment.

The hunt for safe and alternate antimicrobial agents is on in order to overcome such resistant micro-organisms, and the birth of nanotechnology offers promise to combat infectious organisms. Over the past two decades, metal oxide nanoparticles MeO-NPs have become an attractive alternative source to combat microbes that are highly resistant to various classes of antibiotics.

Their vast array of physicochemical properties enables MeO-NPs to act as antimicrobial agents through various mechanisms. Apart from exhibiting antimicrobial properties, MeO-NPs also serve as carriers of drugs, thus barely providing a chance for micro-organisms to develop resistance.

These immense multiple properties exhibited by MeO-NPs will have an impact on the treatment of deadly infectious diseases. This review discusses the mechanisms of action of MeO-NPs against micro-organisms, safety concerns, challenges and future perspectives.

Carbon nanotubes as antimicrobial agents for water disinfection and pathogen control. Waterborne diseases significantly affect human health and are responsible for high mortality rates worldwide. Antibiotics have been known for decades for treatment of bacterial strains and their overuse and irrational applications are causing increasing bacteria resistance. Therefore, there is a strong need to find alternative ways for efficient water disinfection and microbial control. Carbon nanotubes CNTs have demonstrated strong antimicrobial properties due to their remarkable structure.

This paper reviews the antimicrobial properties of CNTs, discusses diverse mechanisms of action against microorganisms as well as their applicability for water disinfection and microbial control. Safety concerns, challenges of CNTs as antimicrobial agents and future opportunities for their application in the water remediation process are also highlighted.

Understanding antimicrobial stewardship: Disease severity treatment thresholds and antimicrobial alternatives among organic and conventional calf producers. Reductions in livestock antimicrobial use AMU can be achieved through identification of effective antimicrobial alternatives as well as accurate and stringent identification of cases requiring antimicrobial therapy.

Objective measurements of selectivity that incorporate appropriate case definitions are necessary to understand the need and potential for reductions in AMU through judicious use. The objective of this study was to measure selectivity using a novel disease severity treatment threshold for calf diarrhea, and identify predictors of more selective application of antimicrobials among conventional dairy producers. A second objective of this study was to describe the usage frequency and perceptions of efficacy of common antimicrobial alternatives among conventional and organic producers.

The treatment threshold, defined based on the case severity where the producer would normally apply antimicrobials , was identified with a series of descriptions with increasing severity, and ordinal multivariable logistic regression was used to determine the association between the treatment threshold and individual or herd characteristics.

The treatment threshold was low. Folliculitis Decalvans FD is a rare neutrophilic infammation of the scalp characterized by painful, recurrent purulent follicular exudation resulting in primary cicatricial alopecia. However, unclear etiology makes FD treatment a difficult task.

A wide variety of topical and systemic agents have been tried previously, with varied results. We present here a case series report of a set of 13 patients with FD on antimicrobial therapy. Current and future challenges in the development of antimicrobial agents. Micro-organisms exist to survive. Even in the absence of antimicrobial agents , many have determinants of resistance that may be expressed phenotypically, should the need arise.

With the advent of the antibiotic age, as more and more drugs were developed to treat serious infections, micro-organisms particularly bacteria rapidly developed resistance determinants to prevent their own demise. The most important determinants of resistance have been in the Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.

Among Gram-positive bacteria, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus MRSA , vancomycin-resistant enterococci VRE and penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae PRSP have taxed researchers and pharmaceutical companies to develop new agents that are effective against these resistant strains.

Among the Gram-negative bacteria, extended-spectrum beta-lactamase ESBL enzymes, carbapenemases CREs and the so-called amp-C enzymes that may be readily transferred between species of enterobacteriaceae and other facultative species have created multi-drug resistant organisms that are difficult to treat. Other resistance determinants have been seen in other clinically important bacterial species such as Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Clostridium difficile, Haemophilus influenzae and Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

These issues have now spread to fungal agents of infection. A variety of modalities have been used to stem the tide of resistance. These include the development of niche compounds that target specific resistance determinants. Other approaches have been to find new targets for antimicrobial activity, use of combination agents that are effective against more than one target in the cell, or new delivery mechanism to maximize the concentration of antimicrobial agents at the site of infection without causing toxicity to the host.

It is important that such new modalities have been proved effective for clinical therapy. Animal models and non-mammalian systems have been developed to. Essential oils as natural food antimicrobial agents : a review. Food-borne illnesses pose a real scourge in the present scenario as the consumerism of packaged food has increased to a great extend.

Pathogens entering the packaged foods may survive longer, which needs a check. Antimicrobial agents either alone or in combination are added to the food or packaging materials for this purpose. Exploiting the antimicrobial property, essential oils are considered as a "natural" remedy to this problem other than its flavoring property instead of using synthetic agents.

The essential oils are well known for its antibacterial, antiviral, antimycotic, antiparasitic, and antioxidant properties due to the presence of phenolic functional group. Gram-positive organisms are found more susceptible to the action of the essential oils. Essential oils improve the shelf-life of packaged products, control the microbial growth, and unriddle the consumer concerns regarding the use of chemical preservatives. This review is intended to provide an overview of the essential oils and their role as natural antimicrobial agents in the food industry.

Improved agar diffusion method for detecting residual antimicrobial agents. The improved agar diffusion method for determination of residual antimicrobial agents was investigated, and the sensitivities of various combinations of test organisms and assay media were determined using 7 organisms, 5 media, and 31 antimicrobial agents. Bacillus stearothermophilus and synthetic assay medium SAM showed the greatest sensitivity for screening penicillins penicillin G and ampicillin.

The combination of Bacillus subtilis and minimum medium MM was the most sensitive for tetracyclines oxytetracycline and chlortetracycline , B. For detecting the synthetic drugs tested, the best combination was B. The results showed that the use of four assay plates, B. Development of non-natural flavanones as antimicrobial agents. With growing concerns over multidrug resistance microorganisms, particularly strains of bacteria and fungi, evolving to become resistant to the antimicrobial agents used against them, the identification of new molecular targets becomes paramount for novel treatment options.

Recently, the use of new treatments containing multiple active ingredients has been shown to increase the effectiveness of existing molecules for some infections, often with these added compounds enabling the transport of a toxic molecule into the infecting species. Flavonoids are among the most abundant plant secondary metabolites and have been shown to have natural abilities as microbial deterrents and anti-infection agents in plants.

Combining these ideas we first sought to investigate the potency of natural flavonoids in the presence of efflux pump inhibitors to limit Escherichia coli growth. Then we used the natural flavonoid scaffold to synthesize non-natural flavanone molecules and further evaluate their antimicrobial efficacy on Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and the fungal pathogens Cryptococcus neoformans and Aspergillus fumigatus.

Through this study we have demonstrated that combinatorial synthesis of non-natural flavonones can identify novel antimicrobial agents with activity against bacteria and fungi but with minimal toxicity to human cells. The risk of antimicrobial agents used in food-producing animals on public health associated with antimicrobial resistance continues to be a current topic of discussion as related to animal and human public health. In the present review, resistance monitoring data, and risk assessment results of some important antimicrobial agents were cited to elucidate the possible association of antimicrobial use in food animals and antimicrobial resistance in humans.

From the selected examples, it was apparent from reviewing the published scientific literature that the ban on use of some antimicrobial agents e. The use of some antimicrobial agents e. The epidemiological characteristics of resistant bacteria were closely related to molecular mechanisms involved in the development, fitness, and transmission of antimicrobial resistance.

A biofilm is a group of microorganisms, that causes health problems for the patients with indwelling medical devices via attachment of cells to the surface matrix. It increases the resistance of a microorganism for antimicrobial agents and developed the human infection. Current strategies are removed or prevent the microbial colonies from the medical devices, which are attached to the surfaces.

This will improve the clinical outcomes in favor of the patients suffering from serious infectious diseases. Moreover, the identification and inhibition of genes, which have the major role in biofilm formation, could be the effective approach for health care systems. In a current review article, we are highlighting the biofilm matrix and molecular mechanism of antimicrobial resistance in bacterial biofilms.

Baseline characteristics were collected through a retrospective medical chart review. Patients were presented to the antimicrobial stewardship team to determine appropriate utilization of high-cost antimicrobials and potential intervention opportunities. Appropriate use was defined as antimicrobial therapy that was effective, safe, and most cost-effective compared with alternative agents. The most commonly prescribed antimicrobials for treatment were daptomycin, micafungin, liposomal amphotericin B, and meropenem.

Posaconazole and valganciclovir accounted for most of the prophylactic therapy. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; Moody, Marcia R. Cancer chemotherapeutic agents and antibacterial antibiotics are often given concomitantly. Daunorubicin, cytosine arabinoside, and three antibiotics gentamicin, amikacin, and ticarcillin were tested individually and in combinations to determine their antimicrobial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Escherichia coli.

These cytotoxic agents are commonly employed in the therapy of acute nonlymphocytic leukemia for remission induction therapy, and these antimicrobial agents are used in infection therapy. The maximum concentrations of the two cytotoxic drugs were chosen to be twice the known peak plasma levels of commonly employed dosage schedules.

Neither of the cancer chemotherapeutic agents , alone or in combination, demonstrated bactericidal activity at the levels tested. However, in the presence of these agents , the antimicrobial activity of gentamicin and amikacin, although not that of ticarcillin, was depressed for 11 of 15 K. This level of decreased activity occasionally resulted in a minimal inhibitory concentration of the tested aminoglycoside well above the standard serum levels.

Daunorubicin was more likely to antagonize gentamicin than was cytosine arabinoside. Electrospun composite nanofiber fabrics containing uniformly dispersed antimicrobial agents as an innovative type of polymeric materials with superior antimicrobial efficacy. Herein we report that electrospun composite nanofiber fabrics containing uniformly dispersed antimicrobial agents and having large surface-to-mass ratios are an innovative type of antimicrobial polymeric materials with durable, nonleachable, and biocompatible characteristics, and more importantly, superior antimicrobial efficacy.

Specifically, electrospun cellulose acetate CA nanofiber fabrics containing an N-halamine antimicrobial agent of bis N-chloro-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidinyl sebacate Cl-BTMP were prepared and evaluated; the results of antimicrobial efficacy indicated that the electrospun composite nanofiber fabrics substantially outperformed the control samples that were solution-cast films containing identical amounts of CA and Cl-BTMP.

Additionally, the results of trypan blue assay test suggested that the electrospun composite nanofiber fabrics also had excellent mammal cell viability. The developed electrospun composite nanofiber fabrics with superior antimicrobial efficacy are expected to find vital applications in biomedical, hygienic, and many other fields. Textiles, especially those worn by patients and medical professionals, serve as vectors for proliferating pathogens.

Upstream manufacturing techniques and end-user practices, such as transition-metal embedment in textile fibers or alcohol-based disinfectants, can mitigate pathogen growth, but both techniques have their shortcomings. Fiber embedment requires complete replacement of all fabrics in a facility, and the effects of embedded nanoparticles on human health remain unknown. Alcohol-based, end-user disinfectants are short-lived because they quickly volatilize. In this work, common zinc salts are explored as an end-user residual antimicrobial agent.

Zinc salts show cost-effective and long-lasting antimicrobial efficacy when solution-deposited on common textiles, such as nylon, polyester, and cotton. Unlike common alcohol-based disinfectants, these zinc salt-treated textiles mitigate microbial growth for more than 30 days and withstand commercial drying.

Polyester fabrics treated with ZnO and ZnCl 2 were further explored because of their commercial ubiquity and likelihood for rapid commercialization. ZnCl 2 -treated textiles were found to retain their antimicrobial coating through abrasive testing, whereas ZnO-treated textiles did not.

Scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry analyses suggest that ZnCl 2 likely hydrolyzes and reacts with portions of the polyester fiber, chemically attaching to the fiber, whereas colloidal ZnO simply sediments and binds with weaker physical interactions. Environmental fate of two sulfonamide antimicrobial agents in soil. Veterinary antimicrobial agents have been detected in a number of environmental samples, including agricultural soils.

In this study, we investigated the persistence and sorption of the sulfonamides sulfamethazine SMZ and sulfachloropyridine SCP in soil and their potential effects on soil microorganisms.

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