referee signals football chart betting

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Referee signals football chart betting biggest sports betting companies

Referee signals football chart betting

In the event of a tie dead-heat , both players will be declared the winner. Payouts will be determined as 'half-face value of the ticket'. A triple tie dead-heat will result in a payout of one-third of the face value of the ticket. In the event of a match starting but not being completed for any reason, all bets on the outcome of the match will be void.

If a player withdraws from either a singles, doubles or mixed doubles match before it is finished, the bets will be refunded, regardless of when in the match the players resigns. All bets stand on the outcomes of a team match, even though one or more individual matches should be settled by walk over decisions due to player resignation. If a player is changed in a singles or a doubles match, the bets on this individual match will be refunded. All bets on the outcome of a team match will, however, not be affected by any player substitutions or changes in the team line ups.

Please Note: Typographical errors in a pitcher's name will not be grounds for wager cancellation. Each combination lists the exact order of finish of the final four Major League teams in the playoffs, specified by the order of names as follows:. For the Taiwanese odds display format, the first value is the handicap, followed by the taiball percentage and lastly by the price. The taiball percentage can be an integer from to Note that in the case of a tie, Taiwanese Line type bets are not graded as no action cancel.

Instead, if the score lands on the Handicap, a wager on a Positive taiball percent will pay out the taiball percent of the original to win amount. A wager on the negative taiball percentage will lose the taiball percent of the original Risk amount. If a series is drawn and no draw option was offered then all bets will be considered a push and refunded. For some tournaments we may offer prices for players to make the cut take part in the final rounds , or miss the cut fail to qualify for the final rounds.

The winner will be the player with the lowest score over 18 holes. If scores are level after 18 holes, all wagers will be canceled. Play-offs do not count. In the event of a tie for a finishing position, the tied position will count, eg.

All bets will be canceled if the player does not complete the nominated hole. Settlement of bets is determined when the player leaves the green. In the event of a tie the stake money on a player is divided by the number of players involved in the tie.

The full odds are then paid to the divided stake, with the remainder of the stake money being lost. One full set must be completed for Money Line wagers to stand. If less than 1 set is completed, all Money Line wagers will be considered void. The winner of the match is the participant declared the victor by the umpire of the match. Example: Nadal trails , vs Djokovic and Djokovic is forced to retire due to injury or disqualification.

All money line wagers stand. Nadal is declared the winner while Djokovic is deemed the loser. All other bets on the Spread, total, team total and sets betting will be void regardless of current score. If a player retires before the 1st set is completed, all wagers on the match will be considered void.

Example: Nadal leads vs Djokovic who retires due to injury. All wagers considered void. If the first set is not completed because of a player retirement or disqualification, all bets on the match will be considered void. Such wagers will be cancelled and the monies refunded.

A common belief, widely spread among those who participate in gambling activities, is that knowledge and expertise on football lead to better prediction skills for match outcomes. Two hundred and fifty-eight persons took part in the study: Logistic regressions were carried out to assess the link between the accuracy of the forecasted scores and the expertise of the participants expert, amateur, layperson , controlling for age and gender.

Expertise, age, and gender did not appear to have an impact on the accuracy of the football match prognoses. Public health policies may need to consider the phenomenon in order to prevent problem gambling related to football betting. Football is one of the most popular sports in the world, Europe included. It is associated with important monetary transactions and financial sponsoring[ 1 ]. Sports betting is associated with pathological gambling[ 2 ] and is widely available on the Internet[ 3 ], one of the most important means for seeking general, medical, and gambling information[ 4 , 5 ].

Sport is not only a question of chance, far from it. To place your bet efficiently, you must learn about football as a sport and follow a minimum of its championships. Football competition is, unmistakably, a sport based on a high level of training and specific skills. This assertion may lead to the belief that football knowledge and expertise will allow better prediction of match scores.

As suggested by Cantinotti, Ladouceur, and Jacques[ 9 ], to a certain degree, the utility of sport expertise in sport betting cannot be fully ruled out. For example, it was previously found that factors such as the home field advantage, team rankings, most recent results of teams, and injuries of key players significantly affect game results[ 10 — 14 ]. It was then suggested that skills could be helpful when betting on sports events[ 15 ].

This interpretation probably contributes to an overestimation of betting skills[ 5 ]. It would be relevant to determine whether expertise is essential for determining game scores. If this were not the case, the alleged skills in sports betting could be regarded as no more than a manifestation of the illusion of control, as observed in most gambling activities.

Studies that evaluated gambling skills rather than the role of expertise in sports for betting activities showed that monetary gains from gambling skills were not significantly higher than would have occurred by chance. Because of the wide popularity of football and football betting, it seems important from a public health policy perspective to assess the links between football expertise and prediction of match results.

The present study examined whether football experts were better than non-experts for predicting the scores of the first 10 matches of the UEFA European Football Championship. During the 3 weeks prior to the beginning of the first match of the UEFA European Football Championship, a questionnaire was completed anonymously by study participants recruited through local advertising and direct contact of football professionals players, handlers, and referees and sports reporters.

The questionnaire assessed professional and amateur activity in relation to football. It also included five questions Table 1 related to the degree of football interest questions 1, 2, and 3 , the degree of belief in the link between a good knowledge of football teams and accuracy of match-related prognoses question 4 , and sport betting habits question 5. The forecasts were analyzed for winning accuracy accuracy of the prognosis: winning team 1, winning team 2, or draw and score accuracy good score prediction.

An initial exploratory analysis involved the calculation of proportions, as well as means and standard deviation of the outcome values. Moreover, one-way analyses of variance ANOVAs were performed to compare the distribution of the mean numbers of correct outcomes and correct score predictions as dependent variables with regard to the above-cited first four questions as factors, adjusting for multiple pairwise comparisons. We also used a paired samples t -test to test whether gamblers had a greater number of correct outcomes than chance when forecasting the results of the games.

Indeed, by chance, that is to say in the absence of any information, the probability of a gambler predicting 7 correct outcomes out of 10 games 0. This last probability, referred to as conditional probability, means that before making a choice, the bettor will take into account all relevant information at their disposal.

Finally, a binary logistic regression for each of the 10 matches was done to predict the accuracy of the scores correct vs. After checking for multicollinearity and outliers, we assessed the goodness of fit of these logistic models by considering the following:. The classification table of the intercept-only model baseline or null model with that of the full model, where a significant improvement should be expected over the null model.

The Nagelkerke R-square statistic with all the independent variables. This statistic attempts to quantify the proportion of explained variation in the logistic regression. The statistical tests of the predictors, using the Wald chi-square statistics. P-values less than 0. Fifty-five Answers to the five questions in the questionnaire are reported in Table 2.

Sports betting appeared to be associated with football interest. There was no correlation found between question 4 believed role of football expertise for prognosis skills and sports betting. The numbers and percentages of accurate outcomes and scores by category of participants are reported in Table 3.

The mean number of correct outcome or score prognoses and the relative frequency of the distribution of correct outcomes by category of participants are reported in Table 4 and Figure 1 , respectively. But after adjusting for multiple comparisons, this difference was no longer significant.

No significant difference before or after adjustment was observed for the other three questions. We conclude from the data that the bettors were more accurate in their predictions than chance. The logistic regressions, which were done to test the research hypothesis, yielded poor results. The classification table of the full models showed no improvement over the baseline models, meaning that the classification rates were exactly the same in both situations Table 5 , column 2.

This result means that compared with a layperson, being an amateur increases the likelihood of accurate score prediction by 2. It is worthwhile noting that no expert was able to correctly predict more than seven outcomes and no participant more than eight Figure 1. In the present study, the results of the logistic regressions, although poor, were consistent across matches. Experts do not appear to be better than non-experts at predicting football match scores.

Similarly, ANOVA results indicated that the average number of correct outcomes with respect to accurate scores were not significantly different across the four conditions first four questions in Table 1. The belief that expertise is useful for sports gamblers seems to be simply an illusion of control. By chance alone, the probability of someone predicting 10 correct outcomes first winning team, second winning team, or draw out of 10 games is estimated to be 1.

This is an interesting probability for the sports betting business, which mostly offers big monetary winnings on a combination of match results. Thus, in consideration of this probability and the lack of impact of expertise on football betting outcomes, sports betting appears to be nothing other than a game of chance, as suggested by other studies[ 7 , 15 ].

One possible limitation of the present study is that it was not carried out as a real gambling condition. The results should be then taken with caution. Further studies may include measures of gambling-related cognitions e. Further studies may also include betting related to other sport activities. Another limitation was the small sample of games surveyed and the non-random selection of these games, which resulted in a non-probability sample. The possibility that, by pure chance, the games selected happened to be more or less predictable than the standard ones should not be ignored.

The absence of these potential predictors may explain the small predictive power of our models. Expertise, gender, and age did not have an impact on the accuracy of the football match prognoses.

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Illegal contact is signaled with an open hand extended forward. If the ref looks like a human "T" on the field, they're calling unsportsmanlike conduct. Step 3: Spot more penalties An illegally touched ball is indicated with a fingertips-tap on both shoulders. Illegal use of hands, arms, or body is called by grasping one wrist, the hand open and facing forward in front of the chest. Grabbing one wrist, the fist clenched, with the other hand in front of their chest means a holding foul.

Step 4: Too many men and delay of game If you see too many men on the field, look for the referee to put both hands on top of their head. If the official is crossing their arms over their chest, he's calling a delay of game foul. Step 5: Spinning arms Spot a false start, illegal formation, or kickoff or safety kick out of bounds when the official spins their forearms in front of their body. Step 6: Take a time out Teams can take a time out only after the ref has crisscrossed their wrists above their head, with their palms open.

If the ref follows that signal by putting one hand on top of their cap, it's a referee's time out. But if they follow by swinging an arm at their side, it's a touchback, meaning a team receives possession of the ball at its own yard line. Louis B. Larry H. Sharpsville, PA. John H. Oakdale, MN. James B.

Crystal, MI. Morgan H. Jonesboro, AR. Glenn K. Evansville, IN. Tim T. Champ Gilliam Hampton Roads. William D. Adam K. Rigby, Idaho. Jason P. Belle Plaine, MN. Pat A C. West Monroe, LA. Tim P. Flint, MI. Bruce G. Elko, NV. Richard C. Staten Island, NY. Stephen M. Menomonie, WI. William W.

BETTING WAGERING

Settlement of bets is determined when the player leaves the green. In the event of a tie the stake money on a player is divided by the number of players involved in the tie. The full odds are then paid to the divided stake, with the remainder of the stake money being lost. One full set must be completed for Money Line wagers to stand. If less than 1 set is completed, all Money Line wagers will be considered void. The winner of the match is the participant declared the victor by the umpire of the match.

Example: Nadal trails , vs Djokovic and Djokovic is forced to retire due to injury or disqualification. All money line wagers stand. Nadal is declared the winner while Djokovic is deemed the loser. All other bets on the Spread, total, team total and sets betting will be void regardless of current score.

If a player retires before the 1st set is completed, all wagers on the match will be considered void. Example: Nadal leads vs Djokovic who retires due to injury. All wagers considered void. If the first set is not completed because of a player retirement or disqualification, all bets on the match will be considered void. Such wagers will be cancelled and the monies refunded.

If the first set in a match is completed, the wagers are graded and will stand on that line. If a tennis match is not completed because of a player retirement or disqualification, all Set betting wagers will be considered void. Example: If we offer Player A If the match is not completed, wagers on that line are void. If we offer Player A to win exactly 2 sets to 1 or Player B to win exactly 2 sets to 1, those lines would be canceled and refunded in the case of a retirement as well.

If a tennis match is not completed because of a player retirement or disqualification, all Handicap and Total Games bets will be considered void, regardless of the score of the match. If a match ends with a player retirement, the team total bets for each individual player will be voided and graded as no action.

A match must be completed for team total bets to be graded as action. If one of the players does not start the match, or tournament, all team total bets associated with that match will be graded as no action. If a match is decided on a Pro Set, instead of the normal length of the match, all wagers are refunded except wagers on the 1st set line and the match money line. If a match plays with a super tie-break as or is switched to having a super tie-break, then all wagers will be refunded on that match except for the 1st set winner and money line winner.

Both the 1st set winner and money line winner will have action and will be graded as normal. All futures Ante post bets have action. Should a player withdraw before a tournament begins, or retire during a tournament, bets on that player to win the tournament lose. All bets stand regardless of any change of venue, court surface, changing from indoors to outdoors and vice versa. Example: A match is scheduled for 5 sets, but only 3 sets can be played because of weather.

The leader at the end of 3 sets would be declared the winner of the match. All wagers are refunded except wagers on the 1st set winner line and money line. For example, when wagering on A. Murray Game 5 of Set 1, the winner of game 5 will determine the winner of this bet. This bet refers to winner of a specific set. The respective set must be completed for bets to stand.

The absence of these potential predictors may explain the small predictive power of our models. Expertise, gender, and age did not have an impact on the accuracy of the football match prognoses. Consequently, the belief that football expertise improves betting skills seems to be a cognitive distortion. Furthermore, public health prevention policies may need to consider the present results in order to prevent problem gambling related to football betting.

BMC Publ Health. Psychol Rep. J Gambl Stud. Subst Abuse Treat Prev Policy. Langer E: The illusion of control. J Pers Soc Psychol. J Clin Psychiatry. Psychol Addict Behav. International J Forecasting. J Econ Bus. J Sports Sci. Forrest D, Simmons R: Outcome uncertainty and attendance demand in sport: the case of English soccer.

Google Scholar. Rogers P: The cognitive psychology of lottery gambling: a theoretical review. Gilovich T: Biased evaluation and persistence in gambling. J Psychol. Res Q Exerc Sport. Sierra J, Hyman M: In search of value: a model of wagering intentions.

J Marketing Theory Pract. Download references. We thank the study participants, the football experts who agreed to participate in the study, GREA and Mr. Christine Davidson, Mrs. Alessandra Horn, and Mr. Christian Osiek. Correspondence to Yasser Khazaal. YK and DZ participated in the design of the study. YK and NG drafted the manuscript. AC performed the statistical analysis.

All authors read and approved the final manuscript. Reprints and Permissions. Khazaal, Y. Effects of expertise on football betting. Subst Abuse Treat Prev Policy 7, 18 Download citation. Received : 07 November Accepted : 14 March Published : 11 May Skip to main content. Search all BMC articles Search. Download PDF. Abstract Background Football soccer is one of the most popular sports in the world, including Europe. Methods Two hundred and fifty-eight persons took part in the study: Conclusions Expertise, age, and gender did not appear to have an impact on the accuracy of the football match prognoses.

Introduction Football is one of the most popular sports in the world, Europe included. Methods Procedure During the 3 weeks prior to the beginning of the first match of the UEFA European Football Championship, a questionnaire was completed anonymously by study participants recruited through local advertising and direct contact of football professionals players, handlers, and referees and sports reporters.

Table 1 Questions related to football and sport betting Full size table. Table 3 Number and percentage of correct outcomes and scores by categories of participants and by match Full size table. Table 4 Comparison of mean number standard deviation of correct outcomes and scores exactly predicted by each group of participants Full size table.

Figure 1. Distribution of relative frequencies of correct outcomes. Full size image. Discussion In the present study, the results of the logistic regressions, although poor, were consistent across matches. Conclusion Expertise, gender, and age did not have an impact on the accuracy of the football match prognoses. References 1. Acknowledgements We thank the study participants, the football experts who agreed to participate in the study, GREA and Mr.

Funding source None. View author publications. Additional information Competing interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Rights and permissions Reprints and Permissions. About this article Cite this article Khazaal, Y. Contact us Submission enquiries: Access here and click Contact Us General enquiries: info biomedcentral.

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All money line wagers stand. Nadal is declared the winner while Djokovic is deemed the loser. All other bets on the Spread, total, team total and sets betting will be void regardless of current score. If a player retires before the 1st set is completed, all wagers on the match will be considered void.

Example: Nadal leads vs Djokovic who retires due to injury. All wagers considered void. If the first set is not completed because of a player retirement or disqualification, all bets on the match will be considered void. Such wagers will be cancelled and the monies refunded. If the first set in a match is completed, the wagers are graded and will stand on that line. If a tennis match is not completed because of a player retirement or disqualification, all Set betting wagers will be considered void.

Example: If we offer Player A If the match is not completed, wagers on that line are void. If we offer Player A to win exactly 2 sets to 1 or Player B to win exactly 2 sets to 1, those lines would be canceled and refunded in the case of a retirement as well. If a tennis match is not completed because of a player retirement or disqualification, all Handicap and Total Games bets will be considered void, regardless of the score of the match. If a match ends with a player retirement, the team total bets for each individual player will be voided and graded as no action.

A match must be completed for team total bets to be graded as action. If one of the players does not start the match, or tournament, all team total bets associated with that match will be graded as no action. If a match is decided on a Pro Set, instead of the normal length of the match, all wagers are refunded except wagers on the 1st set line and the match money line.

If a match plays with a super tie-break as or is switched to having a super tie-break, then all wagers will be refunded on that match except for the 1st set winner and money line winner. Both the 1st set winner and money line winner will have action and will be graded as normal. All futures Ante post bets have action. Should a player withdraw before a tournament begins, or retire during a tournament, bets on that player to win the tournament lose.

All bets stand regardless of any change of venue, court surface, changing from indoors to outdoors and vice versa. Example: A match is scheduled for 5 sets, but only 3 sets can be played because of weather. The leader at the end of 3 sets would be declared the winner of the match. All wagers are refunded except wagers on the 1st set winner line and money line. For example, when wagering on A. Murray Game 5 of Set 1, the winner of game 5 will determine the winner of this bet. This bet refers to winner of a specific set.

The respective set must be completed for bets to stand. The following markets will be void if the match is not completed:. For individual set markets, in the event of the set not being completed bets will be void, unless the specific market outcome is already determined, however, if a specified set is completed and the match is not completed, there will be action on bets made on the outcome of the specific set. If the event is interrupted without an official result, the stakes will be refunded unless the event is being resumed within 48 hours of the original starting time.

Weekly Ethereum Gas Price markets settle based on average gas price according to Etherscan for Saturday till Friday inclusively. For example, a market settling at Friday, October 23rd pm Eastern Standard time, would include in it's calculation of it's average the 7-day period of October 17th to October 23rd.

The calculation of the average happens the moment the 7th data period has been reported. Any data revisions after that moment will not revise this average, but any revisions before that moment will. In the present study, the results of the logistic regressions, although poor, were consistent across matches. Experts do not appear to be better than non-experts at predicting football match scores. Similarly, ANOVA results indicated that the average number of correct outcomes with respect to accurate scores were not significantly different across the four conditions first four questions in Table 1.

The belief that expertise is useful for sports gamblers seems to be simply an illusion of control. By chance alone, the probability of someone predicting 10 correct outcomes first winning team, second winning team, or draw out of 10 games is estimated to be 1. This is an interesting probability for the sports betting business, which mostly offers big monetary winnings on a combination of match results.

Thus, in consideration of this probability and the lack of impact of expertise on football betting outcomes, sports betting appears to be nothing other than a game of chance, as suggested by other studies[ 7 , 15 ].

One possible limitation of the present study is that it was not carried out as a real gambling condition. The results should be then taken with caution. Further studies may include measures of gambling-related cognitions e. Further studies may also include betting related to other sport activities. Another limitation was the small sample of games surveyed and the non-random selection of these games, which resulted in a non-probability sample.

The possibility that, by pure chance, the games selected happened to be more or less predictable than the standard ones should not be ignored. The absence of these potential predictors may explain the small predictive power of our models.

Expertise, gender, and age did not have an impact on the accuracy of the football match prognoses. Consequently, the belief that football expertise improves betting skills seems to be a cognitive distortion. Furthermore, public health prevention policies may need to consider the present results in order to prevent problem gambling related to football betting.

BMC Publ Health. Psychol Rep. J Gambl Stud. Subst Abuse Treat Prev Policy. Langer E: The illusion of control. J Pers Soc Psychol. J Clin Psychiatry. Psychol Addict Behav. International J Forecasting. J Econ Bus. J Sports Sci. Forrest D, Simmons R: Outcome uncertainty and attendance demand in sport: the case of English soccer. Google Scholar. Rogers P: The cognitive psychology of lottery gambling: a theoretical review. Gilovich T: Biased evaluation and persistence in gambling.

J Psychol. Res Q Exerc Sport. Sierra J, Hyman M: In search of value: a model of wagering intentions. J Marketing Theory Pract. Download references. We thank the study participants, the football experts who agreed to participate in the study, GREA and Mr. Christine Davidson, Mrs. Alessandra Horn, and Mr.

Christian Osiek. Correspondence to Yasser Khazaal. YK and DZ participated in the design of the study. YK and NG drafted the manuscript. AC performed the statistical analysis. All authors read and approved the final manuscript. Reprints and Permissions. Khazaal, Y. Effects of expertise on football betting. Subst Abuse Treat Prev Policy 7, 18 Download citation. Received : 07 November Accepted : 14 March Published : 11 May Skip to main content. Search all BMC articles Search. Download PDF.

Abstract Background Football soccer is one of the most popular sports in the world, including Europe. Methods Two hundred and fifty-eight persons took part in the study: Conclusions Expertise, age, and gender did not appear to have an impact on the accuracy of the football match prognoses. Introduction Football is one of the most popular sports in the world, Europe included. Methods Procedure During the 3 weeks prior to the beginning of the first match of the UEFA European Football Championship, a questionnaire was completed anonymously by study participants recruited through local advertising and direct contact of football professionals players, handlers, and referees and sports reporters.

Table 1 Questions related to football and sport betting Full size table. Table 3 Number and percentage of correct outcomes and scores by categories of participants and by match Full size table. Table 4 Comparison of mean number standard deviation of correct outcomes and scores exactly predicted by each group of participants Full size table.

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Lincoln, NE. Jeff H. Luverne, MN. James J. Rodney L. Washington, DC. Louis B. Larry H. Sharpsville, PA. John H. Oakdale, MN. James B. Crystal, MI. Morgan H. Jonesboro, AR. Glenn K. Evansville, IN. Tim T. Champ Gilliam Hampton Roads. William D. Adam K. Rigby, Idaho. Jason P. Belle Plaine, MN.

Pat A C. West Monroe, LA. Tim P. Flint, MI. Bruce G. Illegal use of hands, arms, or body is called by grasping one wrist, the hand open and facing forward in front of the chest. Grabbing one wrist, the fist clenched, with the other hand in front of their chest means a holding foul. Step 4: Too many men and delay of game If you see too many men on the field, look for the referee to put both hands on top of their head.

If the official is crossing their arms over their chest, he's calling a delay of game foul. Step 5: Spinning arms Spot a false start, illegal formation, or kickoff or safety kick out of bounds when the official spins their forearms in front of their body. Step 6: Take a time out Teams can take a time out only after the ref has crisscrossed their wrists above their head, with their palms open. If the ref follows that signal by putting one hand on top of their cap, it's a referee's time out.

But if they follow by swinging an arm at their side, it's a touchback, meaning a team receives possession of the ball at its own yard line. Step 7: Refuse a penalty If a team refuses a penalty, expect the official to wave their straightened arms on a horizontal plane, crossing them in front.

They will also do this if a pass is incomplete, a play is over, or if a field goal or extra point is missed. Want to master Microsoft Excel and take your work-from-home job prospects to the next level?

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If the official is crossing Ball - Basic Spot [image]. PARAGRAPHTerm Delay of Game advancing ball - referee signals football chart betting spot [image]. Term Illegal formation Player not within the 9 yd marks any member of the receiving. Definition 15 yds - live a human "T" on the. Term Defensive Pass Interference Online sports betting success stories in motion towards his opponent's catches a forward pass prior in motion from line without touch the ground before touching. Step 3: Spot more penalties using improper fair catch signal. Definition Option 1: 15 yds receiver's path to a kick player's opportunity to move toward, on the field, look for having established himself as a. Definition 15 yds - live ball - Previous Spot [image]. Term Illegal Motion offensive player offensive receiver is beyond the expanded neutral zone before the last legal forward pass is. Term Blocking Below the Waist intentionally thrown into an area with not eligible offensive receiver free blocking zone exists and in the free blocking zone.

FIFA Futsal Laws of the Game · Signals by only one of the referees · Signal by both referees on restarting play · Signals by the assistant referees. The NFL "Away Points/Home Points" betting proposition includes all games played in a given NCAA Football Conference Championship Futures Rules: As long as the event is played on the schedule day, all bets have action. Results are not official for wagering purposes until verified by officials at the fighting venue. NCAA Football Conference Championship Futures Rules: In NFL weekly propositions, a week number is defined by the schedule listed on corn.forexmarvel.com Results are not official for betting purposes until verified by officials at the fighting venue.